CheCS

Health Assurance programmes

Andrew J Taylor BD VetMB MRCVS
Veterinary Consultant
17 the Maltings
Wiltshire SN16 0RN

Health Assurance Programmes

  • The diseases
  • Eradication initiatives in the EU
  • Health assurance programmes in the UK
  • CHeCS

 

The Statutory diseases

  • Brucellosis
  • Enzootic Bovine Keukosis (EBL)
  • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
  • Tuberculosis (TB)

    UK is officially free

The endemic diseases

  • Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD)
  • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
  • Johne’s Disease (paratuberculosis)
  • Leptospirosis
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Salmonellosis
  • Digital Dermatitis

The endemic diseases

  • Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD)
  • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
  • Johne’s Disease (paratuberculosis)
  • Leptospirosis
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Salmonellosis
  • Digital Dermatitis
    • Endemic in UK and much of Europe

The endemic diseases

  • BVD 65% dairy herds showed evidence of active infection
  • Johne’s disease: estimated 20% herds infected
    • Suspected higher prevalence in some breeds

The endemic diseases

  • Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD)
  • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
  • Johne’s Disease (paratuberculosis)
  • Leptospirosis
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Salmonellosis
  • Digital Dermatitis
    • Endemic in UK and much of Europe
    • Some countries have national eradication programmes

The endemic diseases

  • Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD)
  • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
  • Johne’s Disease (paratuberculosis)
  • Leptospirosis
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Salmonellosis
  • Digital Dermatitis
    • Endemic in UK and much of Europe
    • Some countries have national eradication programmes
    • Some countries have achieved national freedom

BVD Eradication Initiatives

  • Norway, Sweden
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • Italy
  • Netherlands
  • Switzerland
FREE 

 

IBR Eradication Initiatives

  • Austria, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland FREE
  • Belgium
  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Netherlands

Johne’s Disease Eradication Initiatives

  • Austria, Norway, Sweden
  • Finland
  • France
  • Netherlands
  • Switzerland
FREE

 

 

The endemic diseases –
Why control and / or eradicate them?

  • Damage and cost

BVD: The Damage

  • Transient male infertility
  • Depressed Female Fertility
  • Death of Embryos and Foetuses
  • Birth of persistently infected calves
  • Suppressed immune function in calves

    – Increased pneumonia and scour.

Johne’s Disease: The damage

  • Affects digestion
  • Impaired energy intake
  • Reduced disease resistance
  • Reduced milk production
  • Early culling

BVD and Johne’s Disease; The cost

  • Disease models

– BVD: £3500 per 100 cows per year
– Johne’s Disease; £1617 per 100 cows per year

  • Average losses
  • Based on value of commercial stock only

The endemic diseases –
Why control and/or eradicate them?

  • Damage and cost
  • Trade:

    – International

    – National

   

 Eradication Initiatives in UK

  • Voluntary schemes under umbrella of CHeCS

    – Herdcare (BioBest)
    – Premium Cattle Health Scheme (SAC)
    – HiHealth Highlands and Islands Scheme (SAC)

  • Less than 500 members:

    – Mainly beef herds
    – Mainly in Scotland

Cattle Health certification Standards (CHeCS)

  • Self-regulatory body for UK cattle health schemes
  • Non-trading organisation
  • Sets standards for control and eradication of non-statutory diseases to which all licensed health schemes must adhere
  • Herd health status in one scheme equivalent to that in all other schemes
  • Licensed schemes in UK compatible with those in other countries
   

CHeCS

  • Programmes for the monitoring, control and ultimate eradication of the four most important non-statutory diseases in UK:

    – Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
    – Leptospirosis
    – Johne’s Disease
    – Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD)

CHeCS

  • Accreditation Programmes

    – To Demonstrate the herd is free from infection
    – To maintain freedom from infection
    – To allow sale of stock accredited free of infection

  • Screening and Eradication Programmes

    – To implement a control programme to reduce detrimental effects of disease on herd productivity
    – To allow sale of animals of known status
    – To achieve freedom from disease and accredited status

   

CHeCS

  • Vaccinated Monitored Free Programme (BVD)

    – To control BVD through vaccination of breeding herd
    – To demonstrate that control is effective and exposure of young stock to BVD has not occurred
    – To allow sale of stock accredited as being from a vaccinated herd and monitored free of active BVD infection
    – Appropriate for commercial herds selling stock for finishing
    – Herd status lower than that of BVD Accredited herds

CHeCS

  • Monitoring Programmes

    – Available only to dairy herds
    – Use regular bulk milk testing
    – Sample tool to give good assessment of disease status of herd
    – Sample every three months
    – Only available for IBR, BVD and Leptospirosis
    – No test currently available for testing milk samples for
    Johne’s disease
    – No requirements for herd health security

   

CHeCS

  • Monitoring Programmes

    – Measure level of antibodies in bulk milk sample
    – High titires indicate widespread infection (or use of vaccines)
    – Negative titres indicate likely freedom from current infection
    – Intermediate levels suggest presence of some infected animals
    – Information becomes more reliable and helpful as sequential results are added and trends become clear

Health Assurance Programmes

  • Pool of accredited herds free of disease
  • Quality assurance for herds selling breeding stock
  • Should be standard for sale of high value stock
  • “Why aren’t all pedigree breeders testing”
    Fiona Campbell 22 January 2003 BCCB Conference
  • Pedigree shows and sales to require testing
  • Declaration of health status on cattle passports
   

Health Assurance Programmes

Pyramid

Accredited
Screening and eradication
Monitoring
The rest

Health Assurance Programmes

Pyramid

Accredited
Screening and eradication
Monitoring
The rest

Need Critical Mass

Author: designpenguin

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